Practice Guidelines and Illustrations of Current Procedures

Practice Guidelines and Illustrations of Current Procedures

Nuclear Medicine 2013: From Status Quo to Status Go
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Imaging by Beyer T, Hacker M, Schubiger A, Virgolini I, Wester HJ

GUIDELINES:   As posted on SNMMI site. July 2014.

Cardiovascular System

Date Approved

Document title

November 15, 2012 ASNC-SCCT-SNMMI Guideline for Cardiac SPECT/CT and PET/CT 1.0
October 1, 2009 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Cardiac Scintigraphy
June 14, 2008 Myocardial Perfusion Imaging 3.3
June 15, 2002 Gated Equilibrium Radionuclide Ventriculography 3.0

Endocrine System

Date Approved

Document title

September 17, 2011 Parathyroid Scintigraphy 4.0
October 1, 2009 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Parathyroid Scintigraphy
October 1, 2009 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Thyroid Scintigraphy and Uptake Measurements
September 25, 2006 Scintigraphy for Differentiated Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancer
September 10, 2006 Thyroid Scintigraphy 3.0
September 5, 2006 Thyroid Uptake Measurement 3.0

Gastrointestinal System

Date Approved

Document title

September 29, 2013 EANM-SNMMI Practice Guideline for Small-Bowel and Colon Transit 1.0
October 1, 2010 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for Performance of Gastrointestinal Scintigraphy
October 1, 2010 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Liver and Spleen Scintigraphy
June 4, 2010 Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy 4.0
February 8, 2009 Gastric Emptying 3.0
June 20, 2003 Hepatic and Splenic Imaging 3.0

Genitourinary System

 Date Approved

Document title

October 1, 2010 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Adult and Pediatric Radionuclide Cystography
June 20, 2003 Renovascular Hypertension 3.0

General

Date Approved

Document title

November 25, 2013 EANM-SNMMI Practice Guideline for Tele-Nuclear Medicine 2.0
June 8, 2012 Guideline Development 6.0
October 1, 2011 ACR-SNMMI Technical Standard for Diagnostic Procedures Using Radiopharmaceuticals
September 12, 2010 General Imaging 6.0
June 1, 2007 Use of Radiopharmaceuticals 4.0
April 30, 2006 Procedure Guideline for SPECT/CT Imaging 1.0

Infection and Inflammation

Date Approved

Document title

November 15, 2012 EANM-SNMMI Guideline for 18F-FDG Use in Inflammation and Infection
October 1, 2009 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Scintigraphy for Inflammation or Infection
June 2, 2004 Gallium Scintigraphy in Inflammation 3.0
June 2, 2004 Tc-99m Exametazime (HMPAO)-Labeled Leukocyte Scintigraphy for Suspected Infection/Inflammation 3.0
June 2, 2004 In-111 Leukocyte Scintigraphy for Suspected Infection/Inflammation 3.0

Skeletal System

Date Approved

Document title

June 4, 2010 Sodium 18-F Fluoride with PET/CT Bone Scans 1.1 – EANM Endorsement
June 20, 2003 Bone Scintigraphy 3.0

Central Nervous System

Date Approved

Document title

June 8, 2012 Brain Death Scintigraphy 2.0
October 26, 2011 Dopamine Transporter Imaging with 123I-Ioflupane SPECT 1.0
February 8, 2009 FDG-PET Brain Imaging 1.0
February 8, 2009 Brain Perfusion Single Proton Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Using Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals 3.0

Oncology

Date Approved

Document title

September 29, 2013 EANM-SNMMI Practice Guideline for Lymphoscintigraphy and Sentinel Node Localization in Breast Cancer
July 19, 2011 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy 2.0
June 4, 2010 Breast Scintigraphy with Breast-Specific Gamma Cameras 1.0 – EANM Endorsement
February 11, 2006 Procedure Guidelines for Tumor Imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT 1.0
June 2, 2004 Breast Scintigraphy 2.0
June 15, 2002 Lymphoscintigraphy and the Use of Intraoperative Gamma Probe for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Melanoma of Intermediate Thickness 1.0

Pediatric

Date Approved

Document title

October 26, 2010 Pediatric Dose Consensus Guidelines
*Based on the findings of a survey conducted at 13 premier pediatric hospitals in North America indicating administered radiopharmaceutical activities in children varied greatly, a workgroup was established representing the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) through the Pediatric Council, the Society for Pediatric Radiology and the Amercian College of Radiology (ACR). The Workgroup achieved concensus on pediatric administered radiopharmaceutical doses for 11 commonly used radiopharmaceuticals.
October 1, 2010 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Adult and Pediatric Radionuclide Cystography
October 1, 2009 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Pulmonary Scintigraphy in Adults and Children
September 1, 2008 Diuretic Renography in Children 3.0
June 20, 2003 Renal Cortical Scintigraphy in Children 3.0
January 25, 2003 Pediatric Sedation in Nuclear Medicine 3.0
January 25, 2003 Radionuclide Cystography in Children 3.0

Pulmonary System

Date Approved

Document title

July 19, 2011 Lung Scintigraphy 4.0
October 1, 2009 ACR-SNMMI-SPR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Pulmonary Scintigraphy in Adults and Children

Therapy

 Date Approved

 Document title

June 8, 2012 Therapy of Thyroid Disease with Iodine-131 (Sodium Iodide) 3.0
January 25, 2003 Palliative Treatment for Painful Bone Metastases 3.0

EANM Guidelines

SNMMI endorses these guidelines. Dosage recommendations should be taken in the context of “good practice” of nuclear medicine and do not substitute for national and international legal or regulatory provisions.

SNMMI Approval Date

Document title

February 7, 2014 Lymphoscintigraphy and Sentinel Node Localization in Gynecological Cancers
October 28, 2013 Pediatric Radiopharmaceutical Administration: Harmonization
September 22, 2012 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) therapy (2008)
* MIBG is an unapproved agent in this country and cannot be used in this country unless under an IND as part of an investigational study.
March 20, 2012 131I/123I- Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy (2010)
March 20, 2012 Radioimmunotherapy for B-cell lymphoma with 90Y-radiolabelled itribumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) (2006)
* Pretherapeutic imaging with 111In-ibritumomab tiuxetan is no longer mandatory in the United States.

Regulatory Issues for EANM Guidelines

Applicable to all countries: Clinicians involved in unsealed source therapy must be knowledgeable about and compliant with all applicable national and local legislation and regulations.

Applicable in the United States: The radiopharmaceutical(s) used for the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure(s) addressed in this guideline/guidance document is/are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)in the United States. Therefore in the United States, these procedures should be performed only by physicians holding an FDA-approved Investigational New Drug (IND) application for the radiopharmaceutical.

Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum
Published in Thyroid by Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, Nixon A, Pearce EN, Soldin OP, Sullivan S, Wiersinga W; American Thyroid Association Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Taskforce

American Thyroid Association guidelines for management of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer
Published in Thyroid by Smallridge RC, Ain KB, Asa SL, Bible KC, Brierley JD, Burman KD, Kebebew E, Lee NY, Nikiforov YE, Rosenthal MS, Shah MH, Shaha AR, Tuttle RM; American Thyroid Association Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Taskforce

PET
Combined 18F-Fluoride and 18F-FDG PET/CT Scanning for Evaluation of Malignancy: Results of an International Multicenter Trial
Published in J Nucl Med by Cook GJ

Impact of different standardized uptake value measures on PET-based quantification of treatment response
Published in J Nucl Med by Vanderhoek M, Perlman SB, Jeraj R.

Reporting Guidance for Oncologic 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging
Published in J Nucl Med by Niederkohr RD1, Greenspan BS, Prior JO, Schöder H, Seltzer MA, Zukotynski KA, Rohren EM.

Doing more harm than good? Do systematic reviews of PET by health technology assessment agencies provide an appraisal of the evidence that is closer to the truth than the primary data supporting its use?
Published in J Nucl Med by Ware RE, Hicks RJ.

PET Imaging of Proliferation with Pyrimidines
Published in J Nucl Med by Tehrani OS, Shields AF.

SPECT
MIRD pamphlet No. 24: Guidelines for quantitative 131I SPECT in dosimetry applications
Published in J Nucl Med by Dewaraja YK, Ljungberg M, Green AJ, Zanzonico PB, Frey EC; SNMMI MIRD Committee, Bolch WE, Brill AB, Dunphy M, Fisher DR, Howell RW, Meredith RF, Sgouros G, Wessels BW.

High-efficiency SPECT MPI: comparison of automated quantification, visual interpretation, and coronary angiography
Published in J Nucl Cardiol by Duvall WL, Slomka PJ, Gerlach JR, Sweeny JM, Baber U, Croft LB, Guma KA, George T, Henzlova MJ.

An Evidence-Based Review of Quantitative SPECT Imaging and Potential Clinical Applications
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Bailey DL, Willowson KP.

HYBRID

Hasegawa BH, Lang TF, Brown EL, et al. Object specific attenuation correction of SPECT with correlated dual-energy x-ray CT. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 1993; NS-40:1242–1252

Townsend DW, Beyer T, Blodgett TM. PET/CT scanners: a hardware approach to image fusion. Semin Nucl Med. 2003;33:193–204.

Karp, JS, Surti, Sl, Witherspoon, M,E,D, and Muehllehner, G. Benefit of Time-of-Flight in PET: Experimental and Clinical Results. J Nucl Med March 2008. 49: (3) 462-470. (http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/49/3/462.full}

S.R. Cherry, A.Y. Louie, R.E. Jacobs The integration of positron emission tomography with magnetic resonance imaging. Proc. IEEE, 96 (2008), pp. 416–438
MOLECULAR
Acoustic and Photo acoustic Molecular Imaging of Cancer
Published in J Nucl Med by Wilson KE, Wang TY, Willmann JK.

Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with PET
Published in J Nucl Med by Jadvar H.

Noninvasive Molecular Imaging Using Reporter Genes
Published in J Nucl Med by Brader P, Serganova I, Blasberg RG.

CANCER IMAGING
2013 SNMMI Highlights Lecture: Oncology
Published in J Nucl Med by Wahl RL.

Radiolabeled Amino Acids for Oncologic Imaging
Published in J Nucl Med by Huang C, McConathy J.

Functional and molecular imaging of localized and recurrent prostate cancer
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Grant K, Lindenberg ML, Shebel H, Pang Y, Agarwal HK, Bernardo M, Kurdziel KA, Turkbey B, Choyke PL.

Somatostatin Receptor PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Update on Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Geijer H, Breimer LH.

Clinical usefulness of breast-specific gamma imaging as an adjunct modality to mammography for diagnosis of breast cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Sun Y, Wei W, Yang HW, Liu JL.

CANCER THERAPY
Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop Hosted by the National Cancer Institute and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Published in J Nucl Med by Fahey F, Zukotynski K, Capala J, Knight N; Organizing Committee, Contributors, and Participants of NCI/SNMMI Joint Workshop on Targeted Radionuclide Therapy.

Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy: Clinically More Efficient than Conventional Radioimmunotherapy?
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Rousseau C, Kraeber-Bodéré F, Barbet J, Chatal JF.

Selection of First Line Therapy for Advanced Follicular Lymphomas
Published in J Clin Oncol by Press OW, Palanca-Wessels MC.

Interventional Nuclear Medicine
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by McCready VR, Dizdarevic S, Aplin M.

Clinical Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT Concurrent with 131I Therapy in Intermediate–to–High-Risk Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: dual-center experience with 286 patients Published in J Nucl Med by Lee JW, Lee SM, Lee DH, Kim YJ.

Surveillance of cancer patients with imaging: self-evident or evidence-based?
Published in J Nucl Med by Weber WA, Wahl RL.

Three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry of kidneys for treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
Published in Med Phys by Baechler S1, Hobbs RF, Boubaker A, Buchegger F, He B, Frey EC, Sgouros G.

MIRD Pamphlet No. 22 (abridged): radiobiology and dosimetry of alpha-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy
Published in J Nucl Med by Sgouros G, Roeske JC, McDevitt MR, Palm S, Allen BJ, Fisher DR, Brill AB, Song H, Howell RW, Akabani G; SNM MIRD Committee, Bolch WE, Brill AB, Fisher DR, Howell RW, Meredith RF, Sgouros G, Wessels BW, Zanzonico PB.

CARDIOLOGY
Prediction models for risk classification in cardiovascular disease
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Petretta M, Cuocolo A.

Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography
Published in J Nucl Cardiol by Bratis K, Mahmoud I, Chiribiri A, Nagel E.

CNS
The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, Part 1: Sporadic temporal and extra temporal lobe epilepsy
Published in J Nucl Med by Kumar A, Chugani HT.

The role of radionuclide imaging in epilepsy, part 2: epilepsy syndromes
Published in J Nucl Med by Kumar A, Chugani HT.

Update on appropriate use criteria for amyloid PET imaging: dementia experts, mild cognitive impairment, and education. Amyloid Imaging Task Force of the Alzheimer’s Association and Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Published in Alzheimers Dement by Johnson KA, Minoshima S, Bohnen NI, Donohoe KJ, Foster NL, Herscovitch P, Karlawish JH, Rowe CC, Hedrick S, Pappas V, Carrillo MC, Hartley DM; Amyloid Imaging Task Force of the Alzheimer’s Association and Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

Longitudinal progression of cognitive decline correlates with changes in the spatial pattern of brain 18F-FDG PET
Published in J Nucl Med by Shokouhi S, Claassen D, Kang H, Ding Z, Rogers B, Mishra A, Riddle WR; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

PULMONARY
V/Q scanning using SPECT and SPECT/CT
Published in J Nucl Med by Roach PJ, Schembri GP, Bailey DL.

Noninvasive quantitative assessment of pulmonary blood flow with 18F-FDG PET
Published in J Nucl Med by Pouzot C, Richard JC, Gros A, Costes N, Lavenne F, Le Bars D, Guerin C.

BONE
Dynamic Bone Imaging with 99mTc-Labeled Diphosphonates and 18F-NaI: Mechanisms and Applications
Published in J Nucl Med by Wong KK, Piert M.

INFECTION & INFLAMMATION
Past and Present Scenario of Imaging Infection and Inflammation: A Nuclear Medicine Perspective
Published in Mol Imaging by Kakkar D, Tiwari AK, Singh H, Mishra AK.

Molecular Imaging of Autoimmune Diseases and Inflammation
Published in Mol Imaging by Sargsyan SA, Thurman JM.

VASCULAR
Radiotracer Imaging of Peripheral Vascular Disease
Published in J Nucl Med by Stacy MR, Zhou W, Sinusas AJ.

Targeted molecular imaging of angiogenesis in PET and SPECT: a review
Published in Yale J Biol Med by Stacy MR, Maxfield MW, Sinusas AJ.

RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS
Efficacy Consideration for U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval of Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals
Published in J Nucl Med by Gorovets A, Marzella L, Rieves D, Yang L.

PSMA as a target for radiolabelled small molecules
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Eder M, Eisenhut M, Babich J, Haberkorn U.
Also see follow-up letter: Reply to Reske et al.: PET imaging with a [68Ga]gallium-labelled PSMA ligand for the diagnosis of prostate cancer: biodistribution in humans and first evaluation of tumour lesions
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by A. Afshar-Oromieh , A. Malcher , M. Eder , M. Eisenhut , H. G. Linhart , B. A. Hadaschik , T. Holland-Letz , F. L. Giesel , C. Kratochwil , S. Haufe , U. Haberkorn and C. M. Zechmann.

68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumor and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Kroiss A, Putzer D, Decristoforo C, Uprimny C, Warwitz B, Nilica B, Gabriel M, Kendler D, Waitz D, Widmann G, Virgolini IJ.

DOSIMETRY & RADIOBIOLOGY
21 Years of Biologically Effective Dose
Published in Br J Radiol by Fowler JF.

EANM Dosimetry Committee Guidance Document: good practice of clinical dosimetry reporting
Published in Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging by Lassmann M, Chiesa C, Flux G, Bardiès M; EANM Dosimetry Committee.

MIRD pamphlet No. 24: Guidelines for quantitative 131I SPECT in dosimetry applications
Published in J Nucl Med by Dewaraja YK, Ljungberg M, Green AJ, Zanzonico PB, Frey EC; SNMMI MIRD Committee, Bolch WE, Brill AB, Dunphy M, Fisher DR, Howell RW, Meredith RF, Sgouros G, Wessels BW.

TECHNOLOGY
Clinical Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of 18F-FDG
Published in J Nucl Med by Thorek DL, Riedl CC, Grimm J.

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